为“一国两制”实践构筑法律防线

江西期货配资

为“一国两制”实践构筑法律防线

《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》(以下简称“香港国安法”)第1条开宗明义,阐明了此部法律的理念与“防范、制止和惩治”危害国家安全等犯罪的三种功能。防范、制止和惩治措施三者有机结合,共同编织了一张严密的维护国家安全的防护网。

香港国安法的基本理念

江西期货配资XIANGGANGGUOANFADEJIBENLINIANJIUSHIJIANDINGBUYIBINGQUANMIANZHUNQUEGUANCHE“YIGUOLIANGZHI”、“GANGRENZHIGANG”、GAODUZIZHIDEFANGZHEN,WEIHUGUOJIAANQUAN,FANGFAN、ZHIZHIHECHENGZHIYUXIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUYOUGUANDEFENLIEGUOJIA、DIANFUGUOJIAZHENGQUAN、ZUZHISHISHIKONGBUHUODONGHEGOUJIEWAIGUOHUOZHEJINGWAISHILIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANDENGFANZUI,BAOCHIXIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUDEFANRONGHEWENDING,BAOZHANGXIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUJUMINDEHEFAQUANYI。XIANGGANGGUOANFAZHIZAIWEIHUXIANFAHEXIANGGANGJIBENFAGONGTONGQUELIDETEBIEXINGZHENGQUXIANZHIZHIXU,YIFALVXINGSHIMINGQUELEGUOJIAANQUANDESHUXINGYU“YIGUO”HE“LIANGZHI”DEGUANXI,BAJIANSHOU“YIGUO”HEZUNZHONG“LIANGZHI”YOUJIRONGHE,WEI“YIGUOLIANGZHI”XINGWENZHIYUANGOUZHUYANMIDEFALVFANGXIAN。ZAI“YIGUOLIANGZHI”ZHIDUTIXIZHONG,“YIGUO”HE“LIANGZHI”BINGFEIBINGLIE,“YIGUO”SHIZHONGSHIQIANTI。WEIHUGUOJIAANQUANSHIGUOJIASHENGCUNYUFAZHANDEJICHU,YESHIXIANDAIZHUQUANGUOJIAWEISHIXIANGUOJIAFAZHANMUBIAOERLVXINGDEXIANZHIYIWU。

维护国家安全首要任务是防范

XIANGGANGJIBENFADEFANGFANGONGNENGSHIZHI,WEILEFANGZHIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANDEXINGWEIHEHUODONGDEFASHENG,XIAOCHUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDEFENGXIAN,DUSAIWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDELOUDONGERCAIQUDESHIQIANYUFANGCUOSHI。QUELIFANGFANCUOSHIDEZHUYAOMUDESHI,MIBUXIANGGANGTEQUJUMINWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANGUANNIANDEBUZU,TIANBUXIANGGANGTEQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANZHONGCUNZAIDEYANZHONGZHIDULOUDONG。

ZAIGUOJIAGUANNIANFANGMIAN,XIANGGANGGUOANFADI9TIAOGUIDING,“XIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUYINGDANGJIAQIANGWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANHEFANGFANKONGBUHUODONGDEGONGZUO。DUIXUEXIAO、SHEHUITUANTI、MEITI、WANGLUODENGSHEJIGUOJIAANQUANDESHIYI,XIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUZHENGFUYINGDANGCAIQUBIYAOCUOSHI,JIAQIANGXUANCHUAN、ZHIDAO、JIANDUHEGUANLI”。JUCI,XIANGGANGTEQUYINGTONGGUOXUANCHUAN、ZHIDAO、JIANDUHEGUANLIDENGBIYAOSHOUDUAN,JINGHUARONGYIZISHENGWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIDESHEHUIHUANJING,EZHIYOUFAWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIDEQIANZAIYINSU。YAOTONGGUOXUEXIAO、SHEHUITUANTI、MEITI、WANGLUODENGKAIZHANGUOJIAANQUANJIAOYU,TIGAOXIANGGANGTEQUJUMINDEGUOJIAANQUANGUANNIANHESHOUFAYISHI,SHIDAJIARENSHIDAOGUOJIAANQUANSHIGUOJIAHEXINLIYI,SHIBAOCHIXIANGGANGFANRONGWENDINGYUBAOZHANGJUMINQUANLIYUZIYOUDEQIANTI。

ZAIZHIDUJIANSHEFANGMIAN,XIANGGANGGUOANFAGUIDING,XIANGGANGTEQUSHELIWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANWEIYUANHUI,FENXIYANPANTEBIEXINGZHENGQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANXINGSHI,GUIHUAYOUGUANGONGZUO,ZHIDINGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANZHENGCEDENG。TONGSHIXIANGGANGGUOANFADI48TIAOHEDI49TIAOGUIDING,ZHONGYANGRENMINZHENGFUZAIXIANGGANGTEQUSHELIWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANGONGSHU,FENXIYANPANXIANGGANGTEQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANXINGSHI,LVXINGJIANDU、ZHIDAO、XIEDIAO、ZHICHIXIANGGANGTEQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANGONGZUODEZHIZE。ZHEIXIEWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDETIZHIJIZHIJIANSHEDOUSHUYUZHENDUIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANXINGWEIHEHUODONGCAIQUDEFANGFANXINGCUOSHI。

WEIHUGUOJIAANQUANSHOUYAORENWUSHIFANGFAN,JIXIANGGANGTEQUJUMINQINGXIDEFALVGUIFANYINDAO,SHISHOUFACHENGWEIYIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHI。YINCI,ZAIWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDEFALVZHIDUHEZHIXINGJIZHIZHONG,YINGDANGGENGJIAZHUZHONGFANGFANGONGZUO,CONGGENBENSHANGTIANBUXIANGGANGTEQUCUNZAIDEWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANLOUDONG,CONGYUANTOUSHANGXIAOCHUWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANDEFENGXIANHEYINHUAN。

制止功能可补充防范功能的不足

江西期货配资XIANGGANGJIBENFADEZHIZHIGONGNENGSHIZHI,WEILEYINGDUIZHENGZAIFASHENGDEWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANXINGWEIHEHUODONGERCAIQUDESHIZHONGKONGZHICUOSHI。XIANGGANGGUOANFAGUIDINGDEZHIZHICUOSHIZHUYAOTIXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIMINGQUELEXUYAOZHIZHIDEDUIXIANG,JIGOUCHENGWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIDERENYUAN、ZUZHIHEJIGOU,ERSHIJUTIGUIDINGLECAIQUZHIZHICUOSHIDEZUZHIHEZHIZHICUOSHI。XIANGGANGGUOANFADI17TIAOGUIDINGLETEBIEXINGZHENGQUZHENGFUJINGWUCHUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANBUMENDEZHIZE;DI43TIAOGUIDINGLEJINGWUCHUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANBUMENBANLIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIANJIANSHIKEYICAIQUDECUOSHI。7YUE6RI,XIANGGANGTEQUXINGZHENGZHANGGUANHUITONGXIANGGANGTEQUWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANWEIYUANHUIWEICAIQUXIANGGANGGUOANFADI43TIAOSUOGUIDINGDECUOSHIZHIDINGLESHISHIXIZE。ZHEIXIEDOUSHUYUZHENDUIZHENGZAIFASHENGDEWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANXINGWEIHEHUODONGERCAIQUDEZHIZHIXINGCUOSHI。

江西期货配资ZHIZHIGONGNENGYOUZHUYUYOUXIAOBUCHONGFANGFANGONGNENGDEBUZU,YEWEIHOUXUCHENGZHIGONGNENGDELUOSHITIGONGJICHU。YIDANFANGFANCUOSHIWUFAYOUXIAOFANGZHIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIDEFASHENG,KENENGJIGUOJIAANQUANDAILAIXIANSHIWEIHAIXINGSHI,TONGGUOZHIZHICUOSHIKEYIFANGZHIFANZUIXINGWEIDUIGUOJIAANQUANZAOCHENGDEWEIHAIJIXUKUODA。YOUYUZHIZHICUOSHIJUYOUQIANGLIGANYUXINGZHI,ZAICAIQUZHIZHICUOSHISHI,YINGJIANGZHIZHIFANZUIWEIHAIJIXUKUODADESHOUDUANBAOCHIZAIHELIDEXIANDUZHINEI。

惩治危害国家安全犯罪是法治应有之义

CHENGZHIGONGNENGSHIZHI,WEILEDUIYIJINGFASHENGDEWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANZUIXINGJINXINGDINGZUICHUFAERCAIQUDESHIHOUCHUZHICUOSHI。GUIDINGCHENGZHICUOSHIDEZHUYAOMUDESHI,DUISILEIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUIJINXINGXINGSHIZHICAI,SHIYIFASHENGDEFANZUIXINGWEISHOUDAOFALVZHICAI,BINGWEISHEQIANZAIDEFANZUIHUODONG。CHENGZHICUOSHIBAOKUODUIFANZUIJINXINGDINGZUICHUFADECHENGXUYIJIYOUGUANFAZE。ZAICHENGXUSHANG,XIANGGANGGUOANFASHEZHUANZHANGGUIDINGLEANJIANGUANXIA、FALVSHIYONGHECHENGXU,BAOKUOTEBIEDEXINGSHIJIANKONGCUOSHIHESHENPANZUZHIDENG。ZAIFAZESHANG,XIANGGANGGUOANFASHELI“ZUIXINGHECHUFA”YIZHANGZHUANMENGUIDINGFENLIEGUOJIAZUI、DIANFUGUOJIAZHENGQUANZUI、KONGBUHUODONGZUI、GOUJIEWAIGUOHUOZHEJINGWAISHILIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANZUIDENGSILEIFANZUIJIXINGFA。

ZAIYIGEFAZHISHEHUI,CHENGZHIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANFANZUISHIFAZHIDEYINGYOUZHIYI,SHIWEIHUFALVDEQUANWEIHEFALVZHIDUDEBIRANYAOQIU。TONGSHI,ZAIDINGZUILIANGXINGSHI,YAOJIANCHIFAZHIYUANZE,RUZUIXINGFADING、WUZUITUIDING、BUSUJIJIWANG、YISHIBUZAIFADENGJIBENYUANZE。

ZONGZHI,DUIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANXINGWEIDEFANGFAN、ZHIZHIYUCHENGZHIGONGNENGSHIYOUJITONGYIDEZHENGTI,TIXIANLEXIANGGANGGUOANFADELINIAN,YOUZHUYUGOUZHUTONGYI、QUANWEI、YOUXIAODEWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDEJIZHIYUGONGNENGTIXI,WEI“YIGUOLIANGZHI”XIANGGANGSHIJIANXINGWENZHIYUANGOUZHUYANMIDEFALVFANGXIAN。

作者:韩大元(全国人大常委会香港基本法委员会委员、中国人民大学法学院教授)

责任编辑:吴成玲校对:刘宇同最后修改:
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